### Air Defence efficiency according to NATO

**Vojtěch Májek, Jiří Kacer**

#### Abstract

Evaluation of the Air Defence (AD) efficiency in the NATO countries is a little bit different then the in the Czech Army used method. In this paper we will mention two basic ways of the operational efficiency evaluation of the AD groupment.

The first way is based on the value analysis using and one of the main tools is the TASCFORM method. This method establishes operational potential of the air defence device (ADAs) and AD groupment. The second way of the operational efficiency evaluation group is used so, such as in the Czech Army, mathematical devices of the operational analysis. It uses criterion of the efficiency evaluation (MOE ´s – Measures Of Effectiveness), which are opposite to criterion used in the Czech Army simplified and rather can be called “AD principles”. It means that, if we first create operational AD groupment and then are they evaluated, but in NATO it is different.

#### Keywords

efficiency, military, NATO, weapon, air defence

Full paper 2006-12-29 13:21

### Z-transformation in simulation of continuous system

**Miroslav Kašpar, Alexandr Štefek**

#### Abstract

Mostly used method for continuous system simulation is using algorithms for numeric solving of differential equations system. These algorithms are usual more compute-intensive.

Paper is considering by possibility of using discrete method for solving continuous systems. This kind of system is faster and accuracy is better then other alternative methods (like Euler’s method of 1.order).

One part of experiments is compare of outputs from three simulation types:

– solving by RungeKutt 4.order method

– solving by Euler’s 1.order method

– solving by new method

In paper there is compare of whole computing process by numeric methods and new method. At the end there is analysis of preparing and using new method to solve continuous systems. Main accent is done on computing time of all methods and on output accuracy too.

Full paper 2006-12-21 11:20

### HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE – SEARCHING FOR THE OPTIMAL SUPPORT IN THE COCKPIT

**Jiří Kacer, Jiří Fischer**

#### Abstract

Paper deals with a part of the Adaptive cockpit systems project – System situation recognizer module, which was included in the simulation cockpit of the F-16 fighter. In the text are shown the fundaments of the project, the ideas why and how can adaptive cockpit help by using and utilization of the aircraft abilities in the air combat. Then will be present, how was the model of the System situation recognizer module created and the reader will be informed about the off-line tests, how they were prepared, how they were made and what were the results of the simulation.

Full paper 2006-12-20 12:36

### Experimental Online Identification Of Aircraft Longitudinal Motion

**Michal Dub, Rudolf Jalovecký**

#### Abstract

This paper deals with current parameter identification principles used for a description of aircraft motion. Fundamental principles for an experimental online identification of difference state equation matrix coefficients are introduced. Then creation of a mathematical model using classic least squares method and usability of sequential least squares method for updating model parameters are described. The whole concept is tested with real measured data of the L-410 aircraft longitudinal motion using the software support of the MATLAB program.

Full paper 2006-12-15 07:18

### Evaluation of the Air Defence efficiency in the Czech Army

**Vojtěch Májek, Jiří Kacer**

#### Abstract

Behavior study of the real system with help of their models, and their mathematical models are in the research area already full accepted. Mathematical models are suitable form for expression of knowledge about objects and events and together with computer techniques they represent an effective tool for their using. Mathematical models reflect exact, general valid nature laws. But such models are not always sufficient as the reality, which is naturally not certain and more or less uncertain. These attributes become relevant in cases, when we want to make model of a complex, stochastic, hard to describe and measurable system, what of course Air Defence (AD) is. Then we can distinguish uncertainty as degree of recognition of the system follows:

1. stochastic uncertain;

2. uncertain (conceptual uncertainty).

AD as surveyed system with many random elements and with the human activity could be under constrained conditions called stochastic system. Without these conditions is AD to complex, to hard to describe and it involves a human factor, it means it is uncertain. The classical form of stochastic uncertainty representation is a mathematical statistics and theory of likehood. The most often way how to describe the uncertainty is with help fuzzy set theory.

Full paper 2006-12-11 12:27

### Application of Z-method

**MiroslavKašpar, Alexandr Štefek**

#### Abstract

Mostly used method for continuous system simulation is using algorithms for numeric solving of differential equations system. These algorithms are usual more compute-intensive.

The authors thing that there is an other way to solve this problem. They designed new method (Z-method) which is based on equivalence (at simulation view) between continuous and discrete system. Last part of paper and the strongest part is set of experiments which compares the deviation between classic and new method.

Full paper 2006-12-10 07:50

### Simulation Of Dynamic Quolities Of Simple Aircraft Pneumatic Systems

**Jan Čižmár**

#### Abstract

The paper deals with modelling of simple pneumatic systems by means of the theory of electro-pneumatic analogy. The aircraft pitot-static system was described as an electric circuit and its transfer function was calculated using the common electric circuit analytic method.

Full paper 2006-12-10 07:36

### Minimization of the Ecological Impacts of Cutting Fluids

**Peter Giraltoš, Dušan Maga, Victor Klekovkin**

#### Abstract

Historically, cutting fluids have been used extensively in metal cutting operations for the last 200 years. In the beginning, cutting fluids consisted of simple oils applied with brushes to lubricate and cool the machine tool. Occasionally, lard, animal fat or whale oil were added to improve the oil’s lubricity. As cutting operations became more severe, cutting fluid formulations became more complex. Today’s cutting fluids are special blends of chemical additives, lubricants and water formulated to meet the performance demands of the metalworking industry.

Full paper 2006-12-07 10:00

### Optimization Based on the Swarm Intelligence

**Zdeněk Krupka, Vladimír Řeřucha**

#### Abstract

In this paper the term swarm intelligence is explained and corresponding metaheuristics ant colony optimization and particle swarm optimization are described.

Full paper 2006-12-02 07:57

### Biological-psychic state model of the pilot

**Jindřich Janíček, Jiří Kacer, Jiří Fischer**

#### Abstract

The creating of the biological-psychical state model of the pilot is the first aim of my thesis. The creating of this model is connected with the project ACE [Adaptive cockpit environment] and with the project ACS [Adaptive cockpit system], which were solved on the Department of the technical cybernetic and military robotic on the Military Academy in Brno with the cooperation of the University of Delft in the Netherland in years 2001-2005. The aim of the project ACE/ACS was the creating of the intelligent sofistic interface human – machine (pilot – fighter) with adaptable feedback in flight control system of the fighter F-16. The using of the adaptable feedback in the flight control system is a one of the possibility how we can increase the battle effectiveness of the aircraft F-16.

The important component of the structure ACE is the subsystem SAR [Situation assesment recognizer]. The main task of the subsystem SAR is to identify the environment state, avionic state and pilot’s state. For this system identification is used four data inference of easy measured data. Very important component of the structure SAR is the model of the biological and physical state of the pilot too.

With the help of this model it is possible to identify the pilot’s biological-psychical state in the flight with high plausibility. When it is identify high psychical and physical load of the pilot then can the adaptable feedback mechanism make the suitable adaptable action to the flight control system.

Full paper 2006-12-01 12:33